Sun. Jul 21st, 2024

Basic Requirements to Become an Astronaut


Becoming an astronaut is a prestigious and challenging endeavor that requires individuals to meet specific qualifications and undergo rigorous training. The basic requirements to become an astronaut encompass educational, professional, and physical standards. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the essential prerequisites for aspiring astronauts.

1. Educational Requirements

Bachelor’s Degree in a Relevant Field

A fundamental requirement for aspiring astronauts is a bachelor’s degree in a relevant field. NASA and other space agencies typically seek candidates with degrees in fields such as:

  • Engineering: Aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, or other related engineering disciplines.
  • Biological Science: Biology, biochemistry, microbiology, or other life science disciplines relevant to space exploration and research.
  • Physical Science: Physics, chemistry, geology, or other physical science fields applicable to space exploration and experimentation.
  • Computer Science: Computer engineering, software development, or computer science with a focus on space-related applications.
  • Mathematics: Mathematics or applied mathematics with a strong emphasis on quantitative analysis and problem-solving.

Advanced Degrees

While a bachelor’s degree is the minimum educational requirement, holding an advanced degree such as a master’s or doctoral degree considerably enhances an individual’s astronaut candidacy. Advanced degrees demonstrate a high level of expertise and a commitment to academic and professional excellence.

2. Professional Experience

Related Professional Experience

In addition to educational qualifications, aspiring astronauts are expected to have a certain level of professional experience. The basic requirements for professional experience often include:

  • Pilot Experience: For those applying as pilot astronauts, substantial experience as a military or civilian pilot is highly beneficial.
  • Technical Expertise: Extensive experience in technical fields such as engineering, scientific research, medicine, or other relevant areas related to space exploration.
  • Leadership Roles: Previous experience in leadership or management roles demonstrating the ability to lead and collaborate effectively in high-pressure environments.

Minimum Experience Threshold

Space agencies typically require candidates to have at least three years of related, progressively responsible professional experience. However, individuals with advanced degrees may qualify with less experience, especially if their academic pursuits align with the needs of the astronaut program.

3. Health and Physical Fitness

Medical Standards

Astronaut candidates must meet specific medical standards to ensure they are in excellent physical health and capable of meeting the demands of space missions. Medical requirements often include:

  • Visual Acuity: Astronaut candidates should have at least 20/100 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20 vision.
  • Blood Pressure: Healthy blood pressure levels within specified parameters.
  • Height and Anthropometric Requirements: Specific height and anthropometric measurements to fit the constraints of spacecraft and space suits.

Physical Fitness

Astronaut candidates are required to maintain exceptional physical fitness to endure the rigors of space travel, extravehicular activities, and extended missions on the International Space Station or other space habitats. The physical fitness requirements encompass:

  • Cardiovascular Endurance: Strong cardiovascular fitness to withstand the physical stress of launch and re-entry.
  • Muscle Strength and Endurance: Optimal muscle strength and endurance for the performance of extravehicular activities and daily tasks in microgravity.

4. Citizenship and Security Clearance

Citizenship Requirements

Most national space agencies require astronaut candidates to be citizens of the country or the consortium of countries sponsoring the space program. For example, NASA primarily considers candidates who are U.S. citizens.

Security Clearance

Astronaut candidates are typically required to pass security background checks and obtain the necessary security clearances due to their involvement in sensitive government projects and access to classified information related to space missions.

5. Additional Skills and Qualifications

While the aforementioned requirements are fundamental, possessing additional skills and qualifications can significantly enhance an individual’s astronaut candidacy:

  • Language Skills: Proficiency in multiple languages, particularly English and Russian, is advantageous due to international collaborations in space missions.
  • Diverse Backgrounds: Having a diverse background, such as experience in extreme environments, wilderness training, or survival skills, can be valuable for astronauts selected for missions to challenging environments.
  • Technical Skills: Proficiency in operating spacecraft systems, conducting scientific experiments, and repairing equipment in space is highly beneficial.


Becoming an astronaut is an extraordinary achievement that demands a combination of advanced education, professional experience, exceptional physical fitness, and a commitment to the exploration of space. Aspiring astronauts should diligently pursue the educational and professional qualifications outlined in this guide while also maintaining peak physical condition to meet the exacting standards set by space agencies. By understanding and fulfilling these basic requirements, individuals can significantly enhance their chances of embarking on the incredible journey of space exploration as astronauts.

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